Phytolith Systematics: Emerging Issues by Susan C. Mulholland, George Rapp Jr.

By Susan C. Mulholland, George Rapp Jr.

This quantity is the 1st in theAdvances in Archaeological and Museum technological know-how sequence backed by means of the Society for Archaeological Sciences. the aim of this biennial sequence is to supply summaries of advances in heavily outlined issues in archaeometry, archaeological technology, environmental archaeology, protection know-how and museum conservation. The Society for Archaeological Sciences (SAS) exists to inspire interdisci­ plinary collaboration among archaeologists and associates within the ordinary and actual sciences. SAS individuals are drawn from many disciplinary fields. although, all of them proportion a standard trust that actual technological know-how strategies and strategies represent an integral part of archaeological box and laboratory stories. the final Editors desire to exhibit their appreciation to Renee S. Kra and Frances D. Moskovitz of Radiocarbon for his or her precise services and assistance within the creation of this quantity. We additionally enjoy the contribution of the 2 reviewers for his or her very good reviews and recommendations. the overall Editor chargeable for project the improvement of this quantity used to be R. E. Taylor.

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Phytolith Systematics: Emerging Issues

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The use of "black-box" systematics for phytolith analysis ensures that the scope of the technique is always expanding to include new types of contexts, sites and geographical locations. SHEFFIELD-THE "GRAY·BOX" APPROACH As a direct opposite to the "black-box," no preconceptions approach, the graybox approach is an attempt to compare archaeological and modem cereal remains. The aim is to identify the various "elements" of cereal plants (ie, root, culm, leaf, inflorescence) on the basis of their (varying) phytolith suites, and to see whether it is possible to identify particular species or genera of common domesticated cereals (Harvey & Powers, in preparation).

_ _ 1983b Plant opal phytolith analysis: Major advances in archaeobotanical research. In Schiffer, M, ed, Advances in Archaeological Method and Theory 6: 225-266. New York, Academic Press. _ _ 1988 Macro- and micro-ecological reconstruction using plant opal phytolith data from archaeological sediments. Geoarchaeology 3: 155-163. Russ, JC and Rovner, I 1989 Stereological identification of opal phytolith populations from wild and cultivated Zea. American Antiquity 54: 784-792. 13 Sangster, AG and Parry, DW 1981 Ultrastructure of silica deposits in higher plants.

This perpetuation of interest in the phytolith content of soils, although neither as "high profile" nor as extensive as comparable botanical studies, was the forerunner of the very significant work of Welsh soil scientists and ultimately, therefore, of analysis of archaeological sediments. 22 Alix H. 3. German Botanical Papers Published in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries TABLE Year Author Species studied 1899 Formanek 1905 Neubauer Oryza sativa Hordeum Lolium temulentum Avena fatua Panicum crus galli Triticum sativum Secale cereale Zea mays Lolium temulelltum A vena sativa Oryza sativa Panicum crus galli Setaria viridis General Callisia repens Panicum miliaceum Digitaria sanguinalis Echinochloa crus galli Zea mays Coix lacrymae Sorghum halepense Panicum plica tum Oryza sativa Alopecurus pratensis Phleum boehmeri Trisetum flavescens Poa pratensis Arundo donax Elymus sibiricus Lolium perenne Bambusa nana General General chemistry 1908a Mobius 1908b Mobius 1914 Netolitzky 1914 Frohnmeyer 1929 1930 Netolitzky Frey-Wyssling Panicum miliaceum A vena sativa Bromus secalinus Setaria viridus Triticum repens Triticum repens Bromus secalinus Alopecurus pratensis Hordeum sativum Avena fatua Panicum miliaceum Setaria glauca Setaria italica Tripsacum dactyloides Saccharum officinarum Andropogon schimperi Panicum sanguinale Phalaris arundinacea Phleum pratense A vena sativa F estuca arundinacea Uniola latifolia Arundo phragmites Secale cereale Hordeum distichum Bambusa arundinacea Historical Review of European Phytolith Systematics 23 WELSH PHYTOLITH STUDIES OF "...

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