# New Foundations for Classical Mechanics (geometric algebra) by D. Hestenes

By D. Hestenes

(revised) it is a textbook on classical mechanics on the intermediate point, yet its major goal is to function an advent to a brand new mathematical language for physics known as geometric algebra. Mechanics is most ordinarily formulated this day when it comes to the vector algebra built by means of the yankee physicist J. Willard Gibbs, yet for a few purposes of mechanics the algebra of complicated numbers is extra effective than vector algebra, whereas in different functions matrix algebra works larger. Geometric algebra integrates some of these algebraic structures right into a coherent mathematical language which not just keeps the benefits of each one exact algebra yet possesses robust new services. This publication covers the rather common fabric for a direction at the mechanics of debris and inflexible our bodies. besides the fact that, it will likely be visible that geometric algebra brings new insights into the remedy of approximately each subject and produces simplifications that movement the topic quick to complicated degrees. That has made it attainable during this e-book to hold the remedy of 2 significant issues in mechanics well past the extent of alternative textbooks. a number of phrases are so as concerning the special therapy of those subject matters, particularly, rotational dynamics and celestial mechanics.

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**Sample text**

The intent here is to clarify these aims and principles by showing that the preceding arguments leading to the invention of scalars and vectors can be continued in a natural way, culminating in a single mathematical system which facilitates a sirnple expressio~~ of the full range of geometrical ideas. The principle that the product of two vectors ought to describe their relative directions presided over the definition of the inner product. But the inner product falls short of a complete fulfillment of that principle, because it fails to express the fundamental geometrical fact that two non-parallel lines determine a plane, or, better, that two non-collinear directed line segments determine a parallelopn.

Svnthesisnnd Sit~z~lification 31 The cominutative rule baa = a-b together with the anticoinmutative rule b ~ =a - a ~ bimply a relation between ab and ba. 2) shows that, in general, ab is not equal to ba because, though their scalar parts are equal, their bivector parts are not. b = ba. 1) the usual "additive property of zero" is needed, and no distinction between a scalar zero and a bivector zero is called for. The product ab inherits a geometrical interpretation from the interpretations already accorded to the inner and outer products.

This formula expresses the relation between vector magnitudes and bivector magnitudes. 4) for comparison with trigonometry; it is not part of the definition. Scalar multiplication can be defined for bivectors in the same way as it was for vectors. For bivectors C and B and scalar A, the equation means that the magnitude of B is dilated by the magnitude of A, that is, and the direction of C is the same as that of B if A is positive, or opposite to it if A is negative. This last stipulation can be expressed by equations for multiplication by the unit scalars one and rninus one: Bivectors which are scalar multiples of one another are said to be codirectional.