Annual Review of Immunology Volume 27 2009 by Annual Reviews

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The phosphorylated STATs form dimers and translocate into the nucleus, where they bind to DNA recognition sequences and act as transcription factors (33, 34, 58). Besides the major JAK-STAT signaling pathway, the class I cytokine receptors also use other signaling mechanisms such as the RAS-RAF-MAP kinase pathway (59), PI3 kinase (60), and insulin receptor substrate (61). The structural aspects of JAK-STAT communication during receptor signaling are poorly understood and represent a major future frontier in cytokine receptor structural biology.

27. org by University of Bergen UNIVERSITETSBIBLIOTEKET on 01/13/09. For personal use only. IL-2 CHR γc D1 D2 IL-21 D3 IgD CT-1 CHR IL-27 D4 Rm IL-6 IL-5 gp130 D1 IL-15 IL-4 CNTF D5 GM-CSF IL-3 βc D1 D2 CLC FnIII D3 D4 D6 CHR CHR Figure 1 Diversity of shared cytokine-receptor interactions. Shared cytokine receptors γc (a), gp130 (b), and βc (c) are represented schematically on a cell membrane. The respective interacting cytokines with known three-dimensional structures are shown with cylinder representations of the four-helix bundles.

Arthritis Rheum. 54:2817–29 118. Miller PD, Bolognese MA, Lewiecki EM, McClung MR, Ding B, et al. 2008. Effect of denosumab on bone density and turnover in postmenopausal women with low bone mass after long-term continued, discontinued, and restarting of therapy: a randomized blinded phase 2 clinical trial. org • Effective Therapy for Autoimmunity 27 ANRV371-IY27-02 ARI 18 September 2008 23:21 V I E W A Review in Advance first posted online on September 25, 2008. ) N I N C E S R E D V A Annu. Rev.

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