By William E. Paul
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Extra resources for Annual Review of Immunology Volume 1 1983
IMMUNOLOGIC TOLERANCE 39 haptenmoleculesexert an inhibitory effect. Theimportanceof somecritical degreeof epitope spacingin immune signaling has also beennoted in other systems(42, 43). Weshouldtherefore be awarethat subtle differences may exist betweenthe Signal1 that combineswith Signal 2 in immune induction, and the Signal 1 only, whichmaybe operative in someformsof tolerance. Anotherimportantquestion in the creation of an appropriate micropatch on the B lymphocytesurface involves the cell Fc receptor.
Second,70 million cells weretransferred, a very large number, whichraises the possibility that T cell sourcesmightbe contaminated by significant numbersof B cells and vice versa. Takenat face value, the results provide another exampleof a monovalentantigen not leading to B cell tolerance. It is clear that such occur in spleen and bone marrowin substantial numbers,and if they maturein the concomitantpresence of antigen and T cell help, they will immediately be triggered. Of course, pre-Bcells that lack mlghavenot yet beensubjectedto self-censorship.
This phaseis whena potentially anti-self B cell wouldfirst meetantigen. Immature B cells already possessingmIgMcan be isolated from newbornspleen or adult bone marrow,and can be confrontedwith antigen in vitro. Note that this is subtly different fromallowingthe mlgreceptor coat to develop on the cell surface in the constant presenceof antigen. AnimmatureB cell is less susceptible to negative signals than one caught in the pre-Bto B Annual Reviews 40 NOSSAL Annu. Rev. Immunol. 1:33-62. org by HINARI on 08/27/07.