# An Excursion in Diagrammatic Algebra: Turning a Sphere from by J Scott Carter

By J Scott Carter

The purpose of this booklet is to offer as distinctive an outline as is feasible of 1 of the main attractive and intricate examples in low-dimensional topology. this instance is a gateway to a brand new proposal of upper dimensional algebra during which diagrams exchange algebraic expressions and relationships among diagrams signify algebraic family. The reader may well learn the alterations within the illustrations in a leisurely style; or with scrutiny, the reader becomes universal and strengthen a facility for those diagrammatic computations. The textual content describes the basic topological principles via metaphors which are skilled in lifestyle: shadows, the human shape, the intersections among partitions, and the creases in a blouse or a couple of trousers. Mathematically educated reader will enjoy the casual advent of rules. This quantity also will entice scientifically literate people who savour mathematical attractiveness.

Readership: Researchers in arithmetic.

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**Extra resources for An Excursion in Diagrammatic Algebra: Turning a Sphere from Red to Blue**

**Example text**

So the sphere eversion process can be thought of as a move to movies, and the dimensional metaphor changes from 3-spacial plus 1-temporal, to 2-spacial plus 2-temporal dimensions. The distinction between spacial and temporal dimensions is a fictionalization. Since we are in the habit of thinking that the world is 3-dimensional and time is a 4th dimension, it is convenient to conceive of a process in 3 dimensions as a subset of 4-dimensional space. In the sphere eversion process, there is one preferred time direction: that which distinguishes red from blue.

Nelson Max carefully measured each model and recorded the data. He and Tom Banchoff produced an animation based upon these measurements. This early film was an amazing piece of computer animation/computer art. I don’t think there would be a Toy Story without this pioneering work. September 7, 2011 10:37 World Scientific Book - 9in x 6in Dimensions Carter˙Red˙to˙Blue 17 That the chicken wire models were stolen and lost is a real pity. In a Circle of Hell, there is a thumbless thief who must reconstruct them from memory with a pair of blunt wire cutters.

Nearly everyone involved is still living, and if I don’t have the story exactly right, it is not because I didn’t try. I am tempted to embellish the next few paragraphs just to get a reaction from the principals. Instead, I’ll tell the story as it was told to me, as I have read the story on the internet, and as I remember it being told during various lunches and conferences. Any embellishments or half-truths are the responsibility of the lunch time stories, and I won’t reveal those sources. About fifty years ago, Steve Smale [Smale (1959)] proved the remarkable fact that the sphere could be turned inside-out without tearing or folding but allowing it to pass through itself.