Alternative Fuels: The Future of Hydrogen by Michael Frank Hordeski

By Michael Frank Hordeski

Spiraling oil costs, hovering international call for, long term oil provide concerns, and lengthening issues over the weather effect of carbon emissions all are components contributing to swiftly turning out to be help and critical efforts towards the improvement of a hydrogen-based financial system. This e-book will handle the various elements affecting present and rising strength use offerings, together with the provision and desirability of varied fuels - and particularly, hydrogen. subject matters contain strength coverage, gasoline offer tendencies, information and projections, oil reserves, replacement eventualities, strength usage, sustainable power, rate research, gas escalation, power and improvement, regulatory concerns, limitations to implementation, conversion structures, garage structures, thermodynamic potency, gasoline chain potency, life-cycle potency, expertise concerns, extracting, refining, air emission matters, safeguard, typical fuel, hydrogen gasoline, methanol, ethanol, steam reforming, and gasoline cells.

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In 1911 it was forced to liquidate or surrender control of 33 subsidiary companies. (See Table 2-1) The diversity of petroleum’s products, the high heat value of its fuels and its economical transportability has made petroleum, in the form of natural gases, gasoline, gas-oils and fuel-oils a major factor in the world economy. Table 2-1. The Development of Petroleum ———————————————————————————————— 1860 Lamp oil used on an industrial scale 1900 Development of internal combustion engine, utilization of gasoline 1915 Manufacture of chemical products with petroleum base 1930 Use of liquefied propane and butane 1933 Development of diesel engine, utilization of gas-oil 1950 Development of jet engine, renewed utilization of paraffin ———————————————————————————————— MINERAL FUELS Mineral fuels can be divided into three types: solid, liquid and gas.

Universal Fuel Hydrogen is different than other energy options like oil, coal, nuclear or solar. Solar technology is renewable, modular and generally pollution free, but it has some disadvantages, such as not always being available at the right time. Hydrogen is a primary chemical feedstock in the production of fuels including gasoline, lubricants, fertilizers, plastics, paints, detergents, electronics and pharmaceutical products. It is also an excellent metallurgical refining agent and an important food preservative.

Since liquid hydrogen has the greatest energy content per unit weight of any fuel, NASA engineers used liquid hydrogen as the primary fuel for the Saturn 5 moon rockets and the Space Shuttle. NASA also funded research by several aerospace firms, including Lockheed and Boeing, to determine if liquid hydrogen could be practical for commercial aircraft and what modifications would be needed for airports and fueling systems. The Space Shuttle’s main liquid hydrogen-oxygen tank is the largest of the three external tanks.

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