Alkali Activated Materials: State-of-the-Art Report, RILEM by John L. Provis, Jannie S. J. van Deventer

By John L. Provis, Jannie S. J. van Deventer

This is a cutting-edge record as a result of the paintings of RILEM Technical Committee 224-AAM within the interval 2007-2013. The record summarises learn up to now within the quarter of alkali-activated binders and concretes, with a specific specialize in the subsequent components: binder layout and characterisation, longevity trying out, commercialisation, standardisation, and delivering a old context for this rapidly-growing examine field.

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Kiev National University of Civil Engineering and Architecture has also organised international conferences on alkali-activated cements and concretes in 1994 and 1999 in Kiev, Ukraine [115, 116], and in 2007 in Prague, Czech Republic (sponsored by the EU, the Government of the Czech Republic and the City Government of Prague) [117]. The Proceedings of these conferences provide particularly valuable and rare insight into much of the work which has been conducted in the former Soviet Union, which has not been made readily accessible in the English language in any other formats.

The highest-volume application is certainly related to use as a construction material, and this is the primary focus of this Report, but it should be remembered that the potential for higher profit margins in some niche applications is likely to lead commercial development in areas other than high-volume concrete production. 1 Alkaline Activation Throughout History Alkalis in Ancient Cements There has in the past three decades been high-profile discussion, from both scientific/engineering and historical perspectives, regarding the possible role of alkalicontaining cements in ancient Egyptian and Roman constructions, in addition to possibly some of the materials used in earlier civilisations in the Middle East region, particularly the Syrian and Greek constructions which preceded the rise of the Roman Empire and potentially influenced their selection of construction materials.

6 Development of Alkali-Activated Materials in China The products resulting from alkaline activation of metallurgical slags have been marketed as “JK cement” in China for many years [153], and the early developments in alkali-activation technology in China were summarised in a review article by Wang [154]. The key driver in the initial stages of the development of this technology was the demand for high-strength (>80 MPa) concretes with low energy requirements during production, and the plentiful by-products available from China’s metallurgical industries provided opportunities for the generation of binders from slags from ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy, in particular BFS and phosphorus slags.

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