By Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development
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This situation may run counter to recycling policies. x Emission regulations and standards are often not complied with. Unauthorised dumps and sites that do not meet the technical requirements may spring up, as in Italy and Ireland (OECD Environmental Performance Reviews of Italy in 2002 and Ireland in 2000, and OECD Economic Survey of Ireland in 2001). Incinerators may exceed air pollution limits, as with dioxins and furans in France (see “Aménagement du territoire et environnement – Politiques et indicateurs”, IFEN – DATAR, France 2000).
4. Measures and policies The governments of OECD countries have introduced a certain number of measures and policies in an attempt to reduce the environmental impacts and costs connected with rising waste generation. 3. ¾ Waste management planning is on the increase, generally at national, regional and local level. This includes forecasting the quantities of waste produced, collected and treated, setting objectives such as recycling rates for certain materials, and financing waste management. These plans all give priority to preventing and reducing waste generation through recovery; disposal by incineration or landfilling is a least desirable solution of last resort from a public health and environmental standpoint.
S. has increased threefold, from just 10% in 1989 to roughly 32% of household waste in 2001. In the European Union, the recycling of municipal waste has increased similarly: from 11% in 1985-1990 to 29% in 2000. Figure 1. Disposal Rates in United States 100 % Recycled % Incinerated % Landfilled Per cent 80 60 40 20 0 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 Source : Biocycle Magazine. 5. The information in this section is taken primarily from successive issues of Biocycle Magazine, which in 1989 began annual surveys of the 50 states (Glenn 1998, Biocycle 2001).