Acts of Giving: Individual, Community, and Church in by Wendy Davies

By Wendy Davies

Acts of Giving examines the problems surrounding donation --the giving of estate, often landed property--in northern ''Christian'' Spain within the 10th century, while written texts turned very ample, permitting us to glimpse the operating of neighborhood society. Wendy Davies explores who provides and who gets; what's given; purposes for giving; and where of giving in the complicated of social and monetary relationships in society as an entire. humans gave land for all types of purposes - simply because they have been compelled to take action, to satisfy bills or pay fines; simply because they desired to achieve fabric merits in lifestyles, or to safe aid within the brief time period or in previous age. Giving professional anima, for the sake of the soul, used to be fairly constrained; and presents have been made to put people in addition to to the church. relations pursuits have been strongly sustained around the 10th century and didn't dwindle; kinfolk land used to be break up and re-assembled, now not fragmented. The gender and standing of donors are key topics, besides commemoration: extra males than girls took steps to memorialize, unlike a few components of western Europe, and extra aristocrats than peasants, that's much less of a distinction. Donation as one of those transaction can also be tested, in addition to the insights into prestige afforded through the language and type of the documents. trading, giving and receiving endured within the tenth-century because it had for hundreds of years. although this era observed the amount of peasant donation to the church expanding significantly. It used to be this which set the stipulations for great social and fiscal switch.

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12 (arguably 991, but perhaps later) for ploughing, sowing, and harvesting services due from thirty-three named individuals, as well as light dues payable in cakes, bread, grain, or meat. ⁶⁷ See W. Davies, ‘On servile status in the early middle ages’, in M. L. ), Serfdom and Slavery: Studies in Legal Bondage (London, 1996), 225–46, at 243. 22 Setting the Scene were only associated with properties in one community, where these donors and vendors did not themselves appear across a wide area, and/or where the witness lists do not include identifiable aristocrats, then it is a reasonable assumption that these actors were peasants.

Cartulario de San Pedro de Arlanza, antiguo monasterio benedictino, ed. L. ; Cartulario de San Juan de la Pe˜na, ed. A. Ubieto Arteta, 2 vols. (Valencia, 1962–63), charters (in vol. 1) cited as SJP1, SJP2, etc. ⁸⁰ Cartulario de Santo Toribio de Liébana, ed. L. ; Colección diplomática del monasterio de San Vicente de Oviedo (a˜nos 781–1200), ed. P. Floriano Llorente (Oviedo, 1968), cited as Ov1, Ov2, etc. ⁸² Altogether records of approximately 1,960 transactions survive from the region here considered, of which 980 are gifts and 850 are sales—very large numbers by northern European standards; by comparison, just under 100 survive for the same region from the ninth century.

P. Bonnassie, La Catalogne, i. 298–302, ii. 828–9. ⁵⁹ Slavery clearly encompassed both rural and domestic slavery. Many cases are located in Galicia and the northern regions of Asturias and Cantabria, although they occur on the meseta too; however, even in the west and the north, we cannot begin to estimate what proportions of the populations were slaves. Putting slaves to one side, was the status of free peasants secure? ⁶⁰ How far, however, can any decline be located in the tenth century? ); Liii561 (994); T7 (831), Sob123 (867), Cel172 (943), SamS-3 (961); Sob77 (817), S39 (930), Sob64 (984), S328 (985).

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