By ACI Committee 301
It is a Reference Specification that the Architect/Engineer can follow to any development undertaking concerning structural concrete through bringing up it within the venture requirements. Checklists are supplied to aid the Architect/Engineer in supplementing the provisions of this Reference Specification as wanted via designating or specifying person undertaking requisites. the 1st 5 sections of this record hide basic building specifications for cast-in-place structural concrete and slabs-on-ground. those sections disguise fabrics and proportioning of concrete; reinforcement and prestressing metal; creation, putting, completing, and curing of concrete; formwork functionality standards and building; remedy of joints; embedded goods; fix of floor defects; and completing of shaped and unformed surfaces. Provisions governing checking out, assessment, and reputation of concrete in addition to attractiveness of the buildings are incorporated. the rest sections are dedicated to architectural concrete, light-weight concrete, mass concrete, post-tensioned concrete, shrinkagecompensating concrete, business flooring slabs, tilt-up development, precast structural concrete, and precast architectural concrete.
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Extra info for ACI 301M-10: Metric Specifications for Structural Concrete
There is no simple relation for predicting the transverse tensile strength ( sˆ 2T), transverse compressive strength ( sˆ 2C) or in-plane shear strength (tˆ12). Because of the complexities, no serious attempts have been made to model these modes of failure. Note that there is another form of shear failure, namely interlaminar shear failure. 4). e. splitting between plies. 4 Thermal and moisture effects As already mentioned, carbon and aramid fibres have a very small, or even slightly negative, coefficient of longitudinal thermal expansion (af).
In certain circumstances some of the couplings listed above can be undesirable. They can sometimes be eliminated by appropriate construction of the laminate. If A13 = A23 = 0 there will be no coupling between direct stresses and shear strains (or shear stresses and direct strains). e. for every layer with a +q orientation there is an identical lamina with a -q orientation. Bending-membrane coupling can be avoided if the B matrix is zero. This is very easily achieved by making the laminate symmetric about its midplane.
Also, solutions can indicate singularities. Finite element models of this situation are discussed in Chapter 7. 3 Buckling In addition to the forms of failure already described, composite laminates, especially if thin, can fail by buckling when subjected to compressive or shear loading. 36 Overview and review of composite materials The characteristic of buckling is that the panel retains its original configuration (flat or curved) until the initial buckling load is reached. At this point large out-of-plane displacements will occur.