By Martín Abadi, Luca Cardelli
Procedural languages are as a rule good understood and their formal foundations solid within the different types of a variety of lambda-calculi. For object-oriented languages but the state of affairs isn't as straight forward. during this publication the authors suggest and increase a special strategy via constructing item calculi within which gadgets are handled as primitives. utilizing item calculi, the authors may be able to clarify either the semantics of items and their typing principles and exhibit tips to boost the entire most crucial ideas of object-oriented programming languages: self, dynamic dispatch, sessions, inheritance, safe and personal equipment, prototyping, subtyping, covariance and contravariance, and strategy specialization. Many researchers and graduate scholars will locate this a big improvement of the underpinnings of object-oriented programming.
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Additional resources for A theory of Objects
M. , A Theory of Objects © Springer Science+Business Media New York 1996 26 REVIEW. OBJECT -ORIENTED FEATURES It seems natural to take such a protocol as the type of instances of cell. contents := n end; end; subclass reCell of cell is var backup: Integer := 0; override set(n: Integer) is self. backup end; end; We introduce two object types Cell and ReCell that correspond to these classes. We write them as independent types, but we could introduce syntax to avoid repeating common components. ObjectType Cell is var contents: Integer; method getO: Integer; method set(n: Integer); end; ObjectType ReCell is var contents: Integer; var backup: Integer; method getO: Integer; method set(n: Integer); method restoreO; end; These types list attributes and their types, but not their implementations.
3 ADVANCED CLASS-BASED FEATURES One of the main characteristics of classical class-based languages is the strict correlation between inheritance, subclassing, and subtyping. A great economy of concepts and syntax is achieved by identifying these three relations. The identification also confers much flexibility in the use of subsumption: an object of a subclass, some of whose methods may have been inherited, can always be used in place of an object of a superclass by virtue of subtyping. There are situations, however, in which inheritance, subclassing, and subtyping conflict.
The identification also confers much flexibility in the use of subsumption: an object of a subclass, some of whose methods may have been inherited, can always be used in place of an object of a superclass by virtue of subtyping. There are situations, however, in which inheritance, subclassing, and subtyping conflict. Opportunities for code reuse, both by inheritance and by parameterization, turn out to be limited by the coincidence of these relations. Therefore considerable attention has been devoted to separating them.